Afrikanët shkaktojnë panik për Ebolan në Shqipëri




Shqipëria është duke e rimarrë veten pas një alarmi të rremë për virusin e Ebolas kur policia të martën arrestoi 38 emigrantë nga Eritrea në një vend malor dhe arrestoi dy të trafikues dyshimtë.

Frika për shpërthimin e virusit vdekjeprurës u shpërnda pasi mjekët në Vlorë, 145 kilometra në jug të Tiranës, i thanë mediave lokale se mostrat nga emigrantët afrikanë janë dërguar për testim në Institutin e Shëndetit Publik në Tiranë.

Silva Bino nga ky institut, e largoi frikën për një virus eventual.

“Nuk ka asgjë këtu”, tha ajo.
7042 lores-Ebola-Zaire-CDC Photo.jpg
Ndërsa Eltar Deda nga Ministria e Shëndetësisë, tha për BIRN se emigrantët kanë marrë ndihmë mjekësore, por, sipas tij, nuk ka pasur nevojë për trajtim lidhur me Ebolan.

Shqipëria është përdorur shpesh si pikë transiti për emigrantët afrikanë në përpjekje për të arritur në Evropën perëndimore nga Greqia. Ata paguajnë banorët lokalë për t’i kontrabanduar nga kufiri me Greqinë drejt Malit të Zi në veri. Policia shqiptare zakonisht i ndalon ata për disa ditë, pastaj i lë të lirë.

Eritrea është një nga shtetet më të varfra në botë dhe është nën kontroll të regjimit shtypës. Megjithatë, vendi është mijëra kilometra larg vendeve të Afrikës perëndimore e cila është qendër e sëmundjes Ebola.

Inspektorati i Shëndetit i Shqipërisë ka ëkrkuar nga shqiptarët më 6 gusht që të mos udhëtojnë drejt Afrikës ndërsa qeveria ka shtuar kontrollet kufitare.
Aktualisht virusi Ebola është i pranishëm në katër shtete të Afrikës perëndimore: Guinea, Liberi, Nigeri dhe Sierra Leone.

Lexoni :
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ebola_virus_disease


References
^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t "Ebola virus disease Fact sheet N°103". World Health Organization. March 2014. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
^ Jump up to: a b "2014 Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa". WHO. Apr 21 2014. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
^ Jump up to: a b C.M. Fauquet (2005). Virus taxonomy classification and nomenclature of viruses; 8th report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Oxford: Elsevier/Academic Press. p. 648. ISBN 9780080575483.
^ Jump up to: a b "Ebola Viral Disease Outbreak — West Africa, 2014". CDC. June 27, 2014. Retrieved 26 June 2014.
^ Jump up to: a b c "CDC urges all US residents to avoid nonessential travel to Liberia, Guinea, and Sierra Leone because of an unprecedented outbreak of Ebola.". CDC. July 31, 2014. Retrieved 2 August 2014.
^ Jump up to: a b "Outbreak of Ebola in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone". CDC. August 4, 2014. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
Jump up ^ "Ebola virus disease, West Africa – update 8 August 2014". WHO. 8 August 2014. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
Jump up ^ "Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever: Signs and Symptoms". United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
^ Jump up to: a b c d e f Gatherer D (2014). "The 2014 Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa". J. Gen. Virol. 95 (Pt 8): 1619–1624. doi:10.1099/vir.0.067199-0. PMID 24795448.
^ Jump up to: a b c d "Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever Signs and Symptoms". CDC. January 28, 2014. Retrieved 2 August 2014.
^ Jump up to: a b c Hoenen T, Groseth A, Falzarano D, Feldmann H (May 2006). "Ebola virus: unravelling pathogenesis to combat a deadly disease". Trends in Molecular Medicine 12 (5): 206–215. doi:10.1016/j.molmed.2006.03.006. PMID 16616875.
Jump up ^ "Ebola Virus, Clinical Presentation". Medscape. Retrieved 2012-07-30.
^ Jump up to: a b Simpson DIH (1977). "Marburg and Ebola virus infections: a guide for their diagnosis, management, and control" (PDF). WHO Offset Publication No. 36. p. 10f.
Jump up ^ Fisher-Hoch SP, Platt GS, Neild GH, Southee T, Baskerville A, Raymond RT, Lloyd G, Simpson DI (1985). "Pathophysiology of shock and hemorrhage in a fulminating viral infection (Ebola)". J. Infect. Dis. 152 (5): 887–894. doi:10.1093/infdis/152.5.887. PMID 4045253.
Jump up ^ Kuhn JH, Becker S, Ebihara H, Geisbert TW, Johnson KM, Kawaoka Y, Lipkin WI, Negredo AI, Netesov SV, Nichol ST, Palacios G, Peters CJ, Tenorio A, Volchkov VE, Jahrling PB (2010). "Proposal for a revised taxonomy of the family Filoviridae: Classification, names of taxa and viruses, and virus abbreviations". Archives of Virology 155 (12): 2083–103. doi:10.1007/s00705-010-0814-x. PMC 3074192. PMID 21046175.
^ Jump up to: a b c "Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever Prevention". CDC. July 31, 2014. Retrieved 2 August 2014.
^ Jump up to: a b "CDC Telebriefing on Ebola outbreak in West Africa". CDC. July 28, 2014. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
Jump up ^ Jaax N, Jahrling P, Geisbert T, Geisbert J, Steele K, McKee K, Nagley D, Johnson E, Jaax G, Peters C (Dec 1995). "Transmission of Ebola virus (Zaire strain) to uninfected control monkeys in a biocontainment laboratory". Lancet 346 (8991–8992): 1669–1671. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(95)92841-3. ISSN 0140-6736. PMID 8551825.
Jump up ^ Jaax NK, Davis KJ, Geisbert TJ, Vogel P, Jaax GP, Topper M, Jahrling PB (Feb 1996). "Timed appearance of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus after gastric inoculation of mice". Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine 120 (2): 140–155. ISSN 0003-9985. PMID 8712894.
Jump up ^ Harden, Blaine (2001-02-18). "Dr. Matthew's Passion". New York Times Magazine. Retrieved 2008-02-25.
Jump up ^ Mayo Clinic Staff. "Ebola virus and Marburg virus: Causes". Mayo Clinic.
Jump up ^ Lashley, Felissa R.; Durham, Jerry D., eds. (2007). Emerging infectious diseases trends and issues (2nd ed.). New York: Springer. p. 141. ISBN 9780826103505.
Jump up ^ Alan J. Magill, G. Thomas Strickland, James H. Maguire, Edward T Ryan, Tom Solomon, ed. (2013). Hunter's tropical medicine and emerging infectious disease (9th ed.). London, New York: Elsevier. pp. 170–172. OCLC 822525408.
Jump up ^ Johnson E, Jaax N, White J, Jahrling P (Aug 1995). "Lethal experimental infections of rhesus monkeys by aerosolized Ebola virus". International journal of experimental pathology 76 (4): 227–236. ISSN 0959-9673. PMC 1997182. PMID 7547435.
Jump up ^ Leffel EK, Reed DS (2004). "Marburg and Ebola viruses as aerosol threats". Biosecurity and bioterrorism : biodefense strategy, practice, and science 2 (3): 186–191. doi:10.1089/bsp.2004.2.186. ISSN 1538-7135. PMID 15588056.
Jump up ^ Weingartl HM, Embury-Hyatt C, Nfon C, Leung A, Smith G, Kobinger G (2012). "Transmission of Ebola virus from pigs to non-human primates". Sci Rep 2: 811. doi:10.1038/srep00811. PMC 3498927. PMID 23155478.
Jump up ^ Gonzalez JP, Pourrut X, Leroy E (2007). "Ebolavirus and other filoviruses". Current topics in microbiology and immunology. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology 315: 363–387. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-70962-6_15. ISBN 978-3-540-70961-9. PMID 17848072.
Jump up ^ Williams E. "African monkey meat that could be behind the next HIV". Health News - Health & Families. The Independent. "25 people in Bakaklion, Cameroon killed due to eating of ape"
Jump up ^ "Fruit bats may carry Ebola virus". BBC News. 2005-12-11. Retrieved 2008-02-25.
^ Jump up to: a b c Pourrut X, Kumulungui B, Wittmann T, Moussavou G, Délicat A, Yaba P, Nkoghe D, Gonzalez JP, Leroy EM (2005). "The natural history of Ebola virus in Africa". Microbes and infection / Institut Pasteur 7 (7–8): 1005–1014. doi:10.1016/j.micinf.2005.04.006. PMID 16002313.
Jump up ^ Swanepoel R, Leman PA, Burt FJ, Zachariades NA, Braack LE, Ksiazek TG, Rollin PE, Zaki SR, Peters CJ (Oct 1996). "Experimental inoculation of plants and animals with Ebola virus". Emerging Infectious Diseases 2 (4): 321–325. doi:10.3201/eid0204.960407. ISSN 1080-6040. PMC 2639914. PMID 8969248.
Jump up ^ Leroy EM, Kumulungui B, Pourrut X, Rouquet P, Hassanin A, Yaba P, Délicat A, Paweska JT, Gonzalez JP, Swanepoel R (2005). "Fruit bats as reservoirs of Ebola virus". Nature 438 (7068): 575–576. Bibcode:2005Natur.438..575L. doi:10.1038/438575a. PMID 16319873.
Jump up ^ Pourrut X, Délicat A, Rollin PE, Ksiazek TG, Gonzalez JP, Leroy EM (2007). "Spatial and temporal patterns of Zaire ebolavirus antibody prevalence in the possible reservoir bat species". The Journal of infectious diseases. Suppl 2 (s2): S176–S183. doi:10.1086/520541. PMID 17940947.
^ Jump up to: a b Starkey, Jerome (5 April 2014). "90 killed as fruit bats spread Ebola virus across West Africa". The Times. Retrieved 5 April 2014.
Jump up ^ Olival KJ, Islam A, Yu M, Anthony SJ, Epstein JH, Khan SA, Khan SU, Crameri G, Wang LF, Lipkin WI, Luby SP, Daszak P (2013). "Ebola virus antibodies in fruit bats, bangladesh". Emerging Infect. Dis. 19 (2): 270–3. doi:10.3201/eid1902.120524. PMC 3559038. PMID 23343532.
Jump up ^ Morvan JM, Deubel V, Gounon P, Nakouné E, Barrière P, Murri S, Perpète O, Selekon B, Coudrier D, Gautier-Hion A, Colyn M, Volehkov V (1999). "Identification of Ebola virus sequences present as RNA or DNA in organs of terrestrial small mammals of the Central African Republic". Microbes and Infection 1 (14): 1193–1201. doi:10.1016/S1286-4579(99)00242-7. PMID 10580275.
Jump up ^ Peterson AT, Bauer JT, Mills JN (2004). "Ecologic and Geographic Distribution of Filovirus Disease". Emerging Infectious Diseases 10 (1): 40–47. doi:10.3201/eid1001.030125. PMC 3322747. PMID 15078595.
Jump up ^ "Guinea Ebola outbreak: Bat-eating banned to curb virus". BBC News. Retrieved 17 August, 2014.
Jump up ^ Pringle, C. R. (2005). "Order Mononegavirales". In Fauquet, C. M.; Mayo, M. A.; Maniloff, J.; Desselberger, U.; Ball, L. A. Virus Taxonomy – Eighth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. San Diego, US: Elsevier/Academic Press. pp. 609–614. ISBN 0-12-370200-3
^ Jump up to: a b Kiley MP, Bowen ET, Eddy GA, Isaäcson M, Johnson KM, McCormick JB, Murphy FA, Pattyn SR, Peters D, Prozesky OW, Regnery RL, Simpson DI, Slenczka W, Sureau P, van der Groen G, Webb PA, Wulff H (1982). "Filoviridae: A taxonomic home for Marburg and Ebola viruses?". Intervirology 18 (1–2): 24–32. doi:10.1159/000149300. PMID 7118520.
^ Jump up to: a b Geisbert TW, Jahrling PB (1995). "Differentiation of filoviruses by electron microscopy". Virus research 39 (2–3): 129–150. doi:10.1016/0168-1702(95)00080-1. PMID 8837880.
Jump up ^ Feldmann, H.; Geisbert, T. W.; Jahrling, P. B.; Klenk, H.-D.; Netesov, S. V.; Peters, C. J.; Sanchez, A.; Swanepoel, R.; Volchkov, V. E. (2005). "Family Filoviridae". In Fauquet, C. M.; Mayo, M. A.; Maniloff, J.; Desselberger, U.; Ball, L. A. Virus Taxonomy – Eighth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. San Diego, US: Elsevier/Academic Press. pp. 645–653. ISBN 0-12-370200-3
Jump up ^ Smith, Tara (2005). Ebola (Deadly Diseases and Epidemics). Chelsea House Publications. ISBN 0-7910-8505-8.
Jump up ^ Sullivan N, Yang ZY, Nabel GJ (2003). "Ebola Virus Pathogenesis: Implications for Vaccines and Therapies" (Free full text). Journal of Virology 77 (18): 9733–9737. doi:10.1128/JVI.77.18.9733-9737.2003. PMC 224575. PMID 12941881.
Jump up ^ "Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever Diagnosis". CDC. January 28, 2014. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
Jump up ^ Grolla A, Lucht A, Dick D, Strong JE, Feldmann H (2005). "Laboratory diagnosis of Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fever". Bull Soc Pathol Exot 98 (3): 205–9. PMID 16267962.
Jump up ^ Büchen-Osmond, Cornelia (2006-04-25). "ICTVdB Virus Description – 01.025.0.02. Ebolavirus". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Retrieved 2009-06-02.
Jump up ^ Suzuki Y, Gojobori T (1997). "The origin and evolution of Ebola and Marburg viruses". Molecular Biology and Evolution 14 (8): 800–6. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a025820. PMID 9254917.
Jump up ^ Taylor DJ, Leach RW, Bruenn J (2010). "Filoviruses are ancient and integrated into mammalian genomes". BMC Evolutionary Biology 10: 193. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-10-193. PMC 2906475. PMID 20569424.
Jump up ^ Taylor DJ, Dittmar K, Ballinger MJ, Bruenn JA (2011). "Evolutionary maintenance of filovirus-like genes in bat genomes". BMC Evolutionary Biology 11: 336. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-336. PMC 3229293. PMID 22093762.
Jump up ^ Longo, DL; Kasper, DL; Jameson, JL; Fauci, AS; Hauser, SL; Loscalzo, J, eds. (2012). "Chapter 197". Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine (18th ed.). McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-174889-X.
Jump up ^ Gear JH (1989). "Clinical aspects of African viral hemorrhagic fevers". Reviews of infectious diseases. 11 Suppl 4: S777–S782. doi:10.1093/clinids/11.supplement_4.s777. PMID 2665013.
Jump up ^ Gear JH, Ryan J, Rossouw E (1978). "A consideration of the diagnosis of dangerous infectious fevers in South Africa". South African medical journal = Suid-Afrikaanse tydskrif vir geneeskunde 53 (7): 235–237. PMID 565951.
Jump up ^ Grolla A, Lucht A, Dick D, Strong JE, Feldmann H (2005). "Laboratory diagnosis of Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fever". Bulletin de la Societe de pathologie exotique (1990) 98 (3): 205–209. PMID 16267962.
Jump up ^ Bogomolov BP (1998). "Differential diagnosis of infectious diseases with hemorrhagic syndrome". Terapevticheskii arkhiv 70 (4): 63–68. PMID 9612907.
^ Jump up to: a b Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and World Health Organization (1998). Infection Control for Viral Haemorrhagic Fevers in the African Health Care Setting (PDF). Atlanta, Georgia, US: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 2013-02-08.
Jump up ^ Ebola Virus: Symptoms, Treatment, and Prevention
Jump up ^ Sompayrac, Lauren (2002). How pathogenic viruses work (3. print. ed.). Boston: Jones and Bartlett Publishers. p. 87. ISBN 9780763720827.
Jump up ^ Alazard-Dany N, Ottmann Terrangle M, Volchkov V (2006). "[Ebola and Marburg viruses: the humans strike back]". Med Sci (Paris) (in French) 22 (4): 405–10. doi:10.1051/medsci/2006224405. PMID 16597410.
Jump up ^ Special Pathogens Branch CDC (2008-01-14). "Known Cases and Outbreaks of Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever". Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 2008-08-02.
Jump up ^ Schultz, edited by Kristi Koenig, Carl (2009). Koenig and Schultz's disaster medicine : comprehensive principles and practices. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 209. ISBN 9780521873673.
Jump up ^ Lewis1, David (Jul 30, 2014). "Liberia shuts schools, considers quarantine to curb Ebola". Reuters. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
Jump up ^ Hoenen T, Groseth A, Feldmann H (July 2012). "Current ebola vaccines". Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy 12 (7): 859–72. doi:10.1517/14712598.2012.685152. PMC 3422127. PMID 22559078.
^ Jump up to: a b Choi JH, Croyle MA (December 2013). "Emerging targets and novel approaches to Ebola virus prophylaxis and treatment". BioDrugs 27 (6): 565–83. doi:10.1007/s40259-013-0046-1. PMID 23813435.
Jump up ^ Xu L, Sanchez A, Yang Z, Zaki SR, Nabel EG, Nichol ST, Nabel GJ (1998). "Immunization for Ebola virus infection". Nature Medicine 4 (1): 37–42. doi:10.1038/nm0198-037. PMID 9427604.
^ Jump up to: a b Sullivan NJ, Geisbert TW, Geisbert JB, Xu L, Yang ZY, Roederer M, Koup RA, Jahrling PB, Nabel GJ (2003). "Accelerated vaccination for Ebola virus haemorrhagic fever in non-human primates". Nature 424 (6949): 681–684. doi:10.1038/nature01876. PMID 12904795.
Jump up ^ Geisbert TW, Daddario-Dicaprio KM, Geisbert JB, Reed DS, Feldmann F, Grolla A, Ströher U, Fritz EA, Hensley LE, Jones SM, Feldmann H (2008). "Vesicular stomatitis virus-based vaccines protect nonhuman primates against aerosol challenge with Ebola and Marburg viruses". Vaccine 26 (52): 6894–6900. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.09.082. PMC 3398796. PMID 18930776.
Jump up ^ Geisbert TW, Daddario-Dicaprio KM, Lewis MG, Geisbert JB, Grolla A, Leung A, Paragas J, Matthias L, Smith MA, Jones SM, Hensley LE, Feldmann H, Jahrling PB (2008). "Vesicular Stomatitis Virus-Based Ebola Vaccine is Well-Tolerated and Protects Immunocompromised Nonhuman Primates". In Kawaoka, Yoshihiro. PLoS Pathogens 4 (11): e1000225. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1000225. PMC 2582959. PMID 19043556.
Jump up ^ Geisbert TW, Geisbert JB, Leung A, Daddario-DiCaprio KM, Hensley LE, Grolla A, Feldmann H (2009). "Single-Injection Vaccine Protects Nonhuman Primates against Infection with Marburg Virus and Three Species of Ebola Virus". Journal of Virology 83 (14): 7296–7304. doi:10.1128/JVI.00561-09. PMC 2704787. PMID 19386702.
Jump up ^ Warfield KL, Swenson DL, Olinger GG, Kalina WV, Aman MJ, Bavari S (2007). "Ebola Virus‐Like Particle–Based Vaccine Protects Nonhuman Primates against Lethal Ebola Virus Challenge". The Journal of Infectious Diseases 196: S430–S437. doi:10.1086/520583. PMID 17940980.
^ Jump up to: a b Oplinger, Anne A. (2003-11-18). NIAID Ebola vaccine enters human trial. Bio-Medicine.
^ Jump up to: a b "Ebola/Marburg Vaccine Development" (Press release). National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. 2008-09-15.
Jump up ^ Martin JE, Sullivan NJ, Enama ME, Gordon IJ, Roederer M, Koup RA, Bailer RT, Chakrabarti BK, Bailey MA, Gomez PL, Andrews CA, Moodie Z, Gu L, Stein JA, Nabel GJ, Graham BS (2006). "A DNA Vaccine for Ebola Virus is Safe and Immunogenic in a Phase I Clinical Trial". Clinical and Vaccine Immunology 13 (11): 1267–1277. doi:10.1128/CVI.00162-06. PMC 1656552. PMID 16988008.
Jump up ^ Bush, L (2005). "Crucell and NIH sign Ebola vaccine manufacturing contract". Pharmaceutical Technology 29: 28.
Jump up ^ Jones SM, Feldmann H, Ströher U, Geisbert JB, Fernando L, Grolla A, Klenk HD, Sullivan NJ, Volchkov VE, Fritz EA, Daddario KM, Hensley LE, Jahrling PB, Geisbert TW (2005). "Live attenuated recombinant vaccine protects nonhuman primates against Ebola and Marburg viruses". Nature Medicine 11 (7): 786–790. doi:10.1038/nm1258. PMID 15937495.
Jump up ^ Phoolcharoen W, Dye JM, Kilbourne J, Piensook K, Pratt WD, Arntzen CJ, Chen Q, Mason HS, Herbst-Kralovetz MM (2011). "A nonreplicating subunit vaccine protects mice against lethal Ebola virus challenge". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108 (51): 20695–700. Bibcode:2011PNAS..10820695P. doi:10.1073/pnas.1117715108. PMC 3251076. PMID 22143779. Lay summary – BBC News.
Jump up ^ "Canadian Press". CBCNews (Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC)). 20 March 2009. Retrieved 2 August 2014.
Jump up ^ Tuffs A (2009). "Experimental vaccine may have saved Hamburg scientist from Ebola fever". BMJ 338: b1223. doi:10.1136/bmj.b1223. PMID 19307268.
Jump up ^ Feldmann H, Jones SM, Daddario-DiCaprio KM, Geisbert JB, Ströher U, Grolla A, Bray M, Fritz EA, Fernando L, Feldmann F, Hensley LE, Geisbert TW (2007). "Effective Post-Exposure Treatment of Ebola Infection". PLoS Pathogens 3 (1): e2. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.0030002. PMC 1779298. PMID 17238284.
Jump up ^ Geisbert TW, Daddario-DiCaprio KM, Williams KJ, Geisbert JB, Leung A, Feldmann F, Hensley LE, Feldmann H, Jones SM (2008). "Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Vector Mediates Postexposure Protection against Sudan Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever in Nonhuman Primates". Journal of Virology 82 (11): 5664–5668. doi:10.1128/JVI.00456-08. PMC 2395203. PMID 18385248.
Jump up ^ Bausch DG, Feldmann H, Geisbert TW, Bray M, Sprecher AG, Boumandouki P, Rollin PE, Roth C (2007). "Outbreaks of Filovirus Hemorrhagic Fever: Time to Refocus on the Patient". The Journal of Infectious Diseases 196: S136–S141. doi:10.1086/520542. PMID 17940941.
Jump up ^ Jeffs B (2006). "A clinical guide to viral haemorrhagic fevers: Ebola, Marburg and Lassa". Tropical Doctor 36 (1): 1–4. doi:10.1258/004947506775598914. PMID 16483416.
Jump up ^ Nkoghé D, Formenty P, Nnégué S, Mvé MT, Hypolite I, Léonard P, Leroy E (2004). "Practical guidelines for the management of Ebola infected patients in the field". Medecine tropicale : revue du Corps de sante colonial 64 (2): 199–204. PMID 15460155.
Jump up ^ "Sierra Leone Is Epicenter of Ebola as Guinea Clinic Shut". 2014-06-08. Retrieved 2014-07-30.
Jump up ^ Briggs, Helen (7 August 2014) Ebola: Experimental drugs and vaccines BBC News, Health, Retrieved 8 August 2014
Jump up ^ Alexander Gaffney for Regulatory Affairs Professionals Society News. 07 August 2014. Regulatory Explainer: What You Need to Know About the Regulation of Ebola Treatments
^ Jump up to: a b Pollack, Andrew (7 August 2014) Second Drug Is Allowed for Treatment of Ebola The New York Times, Retrieved 8 August 2014
Jump up ^ "Three leading Ebola experts call for release of experimental drug". Los Angeles Times. August 6, 2014.
Jump up ^ "In Ebola Outbreak, Who Should Get Experimental Drug?". The New York Times. August 8, 2014.
Jump up ^ Dennis Thompson via WebMD News from HealthDay. August 12, 2014 WHO Experts Give Nod to Using Untested Ebola Drugs: Move would be justified in 'particular circumstances' of current outbreak, ethicists say
Jump up ^ "Ethical considerations for use of unregistered interventions for Ebola viral disease (EVD)". World Health Organization. 12 August 2014.
Jump up ^ "Who, What, Why: How many people infected with ebola die?". BBC News. 2014-08-09.
Jump up ^ Hewlett, Barry; Hewlett, Bonnie (2007). Ebola, Culture and Politics: The Anthropology of an Emerging Disease. Cengage Learning. p. 103. Retrieved 31 July 2014.
Jump up ^ "Ebola hemorrhagic fever in Zaire, 1976". Bulletin of the World Health Organization 56 (6): 271. 1978. Retrieved 4 August 2014.
Jump up ^ "Ebola hemorrhagic fever in Zaire, 1976". Bulletin of the World Health Organization 56 (6): 271. 1978. Retrieved 4 August 2014.
Jump up ^ "Ebola virus disease". Retrieved 15 August 2014.
Jump up ^ "Mystery DR Congo fever kills 100". BBC News. 2007-08-31. Retrieved 2008-02-25.
Jump up ^ Formenty, P.; Libama, F.; Epelboin, A.; Allarangar, Y.; Leroy, E.; Moudzeo, H.; Tarangonia, P.; Molamou, A.; Lenzi, M.; Ait-Ikhlef, K.; Hewlett, B.; Roth, C.; Grein, T. (2003). "Outbreak of Ebola hemorrhagic fever in the Republic of the Congo, 2003: a new strategy?". Medecine tropicale : revue du Corps de sante colonial How did the Ebola river get its name? What is the origin of the word Ebola? I am wondering what is the origin of the word "Ebola". I understand that the Ebolavirus (Ebola virus) got its name from the Ebola river, but I am wondering how the river got its name. What is the origin and meaning of the word Ebola? What language does it originate from? 63 (3): 291–295. PMID 14579469. edit
Jump up ^ "Ebola Outbreak Confirmed in Congo". NewScientist.com. 2007-09-11. Retrieved 2008-02-25.
Jump up ^ Ebola outbreak in Congo. CDC news. 2007-09-12. Retrieved 2009-05-31.
Jump up ^ "Mystery DR Congo fever kills 100". BBC News. 2007-08-31. Retrieved 2008-02-25.
Jump up ^ "Uganda: Deadly Ebola Outbreak Confirmed – UN". UN News Service. 2007-11-30. Retrieved 2008-02-25.
Jump up ^ "DRC Confirms Ebola Outbreak". Voanews.com. Retrieved 2013-04-15.
Jump up ^ "WHO | Ebola outbreak in Democratic Republic of Congo". Who.int. 2012-08-17. Retrieved 2013-04-15.
Jump up ^ "WHO | Ebola outbreak in Democratic Republic of Congo – update". Who.int. 2012-08-21. Retrieved 2013-04-15.
Jump up ^ Castillo M (2012). Ebola virus claims 31 lives in Democratic Republic of the Congo. United States: CBS News. Retrieved 14 September 2012.
Jump up ^ "Guidelines for Evaluation of US Patients Suspected of Having Ebola Virus Disease". CDC. August 1, 2014. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
Jump up ^ Grady, Denise; Sheri Fink (2014-08-09). "Tracing Ebola’s Breakout to an African 2-Year-Old". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2014-08-10.
Jump up ^ "Outbreak of Ebola in Guinea and Liberia". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 13 April 2014.
Jump up ^ World Health Organization (2014-04-07). "Ebola virus disease, West Africa (Situation as of 7 April 2014) - Guinea". ReliefWeb.
Jump up ^ "Ebola virus disease, West Africa". World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa. 2014-07-31.
Jump up ^ "WHO raises global alarm over Ebola outbreak". CBS. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
Jump up ^ "Ebola epidemic in West Africa declared a health emergency". Big News Network.com. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
Jump up ^ "Using a Tactic Unseen in a Century, Countries Cordon Off Ebola-Racked Areas". NYTimes. Retrieved 13 August 2014.
Jump up ^ "Emory Healthcare statement and letter to the Emory Community". Emory Healthcare Statement. Emory University. 2014-08-01.
Jump up ^ Stanglin D (2014-08-01). "2 American Ebola patients head to USA". USA Today.
Jump up ^ Botelho G, Brumfield B, Carter CJ (2014-08-02). "Ebola coming to U.S, as Atlanta hospital prepares". CNN.com.
Jump up ^ Harf M (2014-08-01). "Medical Evacuations of Two U.S. Citizens From West Africa". Press Statement. U.S. Department of State.
Jump up ^ "US allays Ebola fears as doctors flown home for treatment". Atlanta News.Net. Retrieved 2 August 2014.
^ Jump up to: a b Brown R (2014-07-17). "The virus detective who discovered Ebola in 1976". News Magazine. BBC News.
Jump up ^ Bennett D, Brown D (May 1995). "Ebola virus". BMJ (Clinical research ed.) 310 (6991): 1344–1345. doi:10.1136/bmj.310.6991.1344. PMC 2549737. PMID 7787519.
Jump up ^ King JW (2008-04-02). "Ebola Virus". eMedicine. WebMd. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
^ Jump up to: a b c Preston, Richard (1994). The Hot Zone. New York: Random House. p. 300. ISBN 978-0679437840.
Jump up ^ McCormick & Fisher-Hoch 1999, pp. 277–279
Jump up ^ Waterman, Tara (1999). Ebola Reston Outbreaks. Stanford University. Retrieved 2008-08-02.
Jump up ^ McCormick & Fisher-Hoch 1999, pp. 298–299
Jump up ^ Borio L, Inglesby T, Peters CJ, Schmaljohn AL, Hughes JM, Jahrling PB, Ksiazek T, Johnson KM, Meyerhoff A, O'Toole T, Ascher MS, Bartlett J, Breman JG, Eitzen EM, Hamburg M, Hauer J, Henderson DA, Johnson RT, Kwik G, Layton M, Lillibridge S, Nabel GJ, Osterholm MT, Perl TM, Russell P, Tonat K (2002). "Hemorrhagic fever viruses as biological weapons: medical and public health management". Journal of the American Medical Association 287 (18): 2391–405. doi:10.1001/jama.287.18.2391. PMID 11988060.
Jump up ^ Salvaggio MR, Baddley JW (2004). "Other viral bioweapons: Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fever". Dermatologic clinics 22 (3): 291–302, vi. doi:10.1016/j.det.2004.03.003. PMID 15207310.
Jump up ^ Rouquet P, Froment JM, Bermejo M, Kilbourn A, Karesh W, Reed P, Kumulungui B, Yaba P, Délicat A, Rollin PE, Leroy EM (Feb 2005). "Wild animal mortality monitoring and human Ebola outbreaks, Gabon and Republic of Congo, 2001–2003" (Free full text). Emerging Infectious Diseases 11 (2): 283–290. doi:10.3201/eid1102.040533. ISSN 1080-6040. PMC 3320460. PMID 15752448.
^ Jump up to: a b Leroy EM, Rouquet P, Formenty P, Souquière S, Kilbourne A, Froment JM, Bermejo M, Smit S, Karesh W, Swanepoel R, Zaki SR, Rollin PE (2004). "Multiple Ebola virus transmission events and rapid decline of central African wildlife". Science 303 (5656): 387–390. Bibcode:2004Sci...303..387L. doi:10.1126/science.1092528. PMID 14726594.
Jump up ^ Choi JH, Croyle MA (2013). "Emerging targets and novel approaches to Ebola virus prophylaxis and treatment". BioDrugs 27 (6): 565–83. doi:10.1007/s40259-013-0046-1. PMID 23813435.
Jump up ^ Ebola 'kills over 5,000 gorillas'. BBC. 2006-12-08. Retrieved 2009-05-31.
Jump up ^ Formenty P, Boesch C, Wyers M, Steiner C, Donati F, Dind F, Walker F, Le Guenno B (1999). "Ebola virus outbreak among wild chimpanzees living in a rain forest of Côte d'Ivoire". The Journal of infectious diseases. 179. Suppl 1 (s1): S120–S126. doi:10.1086/514296. PMID 9988175.
Jump up ^ Weingartl HM, Nfon C, Kobinger G (2013). "Review of Ebola virus infections in domestic animals". Dev Biol (Basel) 135: 211–8. doi:10.1159/000178495. PMID 23689899.
^ Jump up to: a b Johansen LM, Brannan JM, Delos SE, Shoemaker CJ, Stossel A, Lear C, Hoffstrom BG, Dewald LE, Schornberg KL, Scully C, Lehár J, Hensley LE, White JM, Olinger GG (2013). "FDA-approved selective estrogen receptor modulators inhibit Ebola virus infection". Sci Transl Med 5 (190): 190ra79. doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.3005471. PMC 3955358. PMID 23785035. Lay summary – Healthline Networks, Inc.
Jump up ^ Gehring, G.; Rohrmann, K.; Atenchong, N.; Mittler, E.; Becker, S.; Dahlmann, F.; Pohlmann, S.; Vondran, F. W. R.; David, S.; Manns, M. P.; Ciesek, S.; von Hahn, T. (2014). "The clinically approved drugs amiodarone, dronedarone and verapamil inhibit filovirus cell entry". Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 69 (8): 2123–2131. doi:10.1093/jac/dku091. ISSN 0305-7453. PMID 24710028.
Jump up ^ Mupapa K, Massamba M, Kibadi K, Kuvula K, Bwaka A, Kipasa M, Colebunders R, Muyembe-Tamfum JJ (1999). "Treatment of Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever with Blood Transfusions from Convalescent Patients". The Journal of Infectious Diseases 179: S18–S23. doi:10.1086/514298. PMID 9988160.
Jump up ^ Feldmann H, Geisbert TW (2011). "Ebola haemorrhagic fever". The Lancet 377 (9768): 849–862. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60667-8. PMID 21084112.
Jump up ^ Saphire EO (2013). "An update on the use of antibodies against the filoviruses". Immunotherapy 5 (11): 1221–33. doi:10.2217/imt.13.124. PMID 24188676.
Jump up ^ "Experimental drug likely saved Ebola patients". CNN. August 4, 2014.
Jump up ^ "Mystery Ebola virus serum manufactured by San Diego firm". Los Angeles Times. August 4, 2014.
Jump up ^ Spanish Priest Dies of Ebola Despite Z-Mapp Treatment
Jump up ^ Ethical Issues In Using An Experimental Ebola Drug
Jump up ^ Geisbert TW, Lee AC, Robbins M, Geisbert JB, Honko AN, Sood V, Johnson JC, de Jong S, Tavakoli I, Judge A, Hensley LE, Maclachlan I (2010). "Postexposure protection of non-human primates against a lethal Ebola virus challenge with RNA interference: A proof-of-concept study". The Lancet 375 (9729): 1896–1905. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60357-1. PMID 20511019.
Jump up ^ Warren TK, Warfield KL, Wells J, Swenson DL, Donner KS, Van Tongeren SA, Garza NL, Dong L, Mourich DV, Crumley S, Nichols DK, Iversen PL, Bavari S (2010). "Advanced antisense therapies for postexposure protection against lethal filovirus infections". Nature Medicine 16 (9): 991–994. doi:10.1038/nm.2202. PMID 20729866.
Jump up ^ Helen Branswell (August 3, 2014). "Nancy Writebol, U.S. missionary, didn't get TKM-Ebola drug, Tekmira says". The Canadian Press.
Bibliography
Klenk, Hans-Dieter (January 1999). Marburg and Ebola Viruses (Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology). Berlin: Springer-Verlag Telos. ISBN 978-3-540-64729-4.
Klenk, Hans-Dieter; Feldmann, Heinz (2004). Ebola and Marburg viruses: molecular and cellular biology (Limited preview). Wymondham, Norfolk, UK: Horizon Bioscience. ISBN 978-0-9545232-3-7.
Kuhn, Jens H. (2008). Filoviruses: A Compendium of 40 Years of Epidemiological, Clinical, and Laboratory Studies. Archives of Virology Supplement, vol. 20 (Limited preview). Vienna: SpringerWienNewYork. ISBN 978-3-211-20670-6.
McCormick, Joseph; Fisher-Hoch, Susan (June 1999) [1996]. Level 4: Virus Hunters of the CDC (Limited preview). Horvitz, Leslie Alan (Updated [3rd] ed.). Barnes & Noble. ISBN 978-0-7607-1208-5.
Pattyn, S. R. (1978). Ebola Virus Haemorrhagic Fever (Full free text) (1st ed.). Amsterdam: Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press. ISBN 0-444-80060-3.
Ryabchikova, Elena I.; Price, Barbara B. (2004). Ebola and Marburg Viruses: A View of Infection Using Electron Microscopy. Columbus, Ohio: Battelle Press. ISBN 978-1-57477-131-2.

Përgatiti:Mr.sci.Flori Bruqi

Comments

Popular posts from this blog

Libra të rinj - Shkarkim falas

Ese për Vitin e Ri

Poezi të zgjedhura nga GJERGJ FISHTA (23 tetor 1870 - 30 dhjetor 1940)